Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona and Texas, all of which were part of Mexico from its independence in 1821 from Spain until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states.
The Mexican people have varied origins and an identity that has evolved with the succession of conquests among Amerindian groups and later by Europeans. The Nahuatl language was a common tongue in the region of modern Central Mexico during the Aztec Empire, but after the arrival of Europeans the common language of the region became Spanish.
While Latinx use is growing in Spain, the Royal Spanish Academy rejects the use of -x and -e as gender-neutral alternatives to the collective masculine -o ending. Regarding this decision, Darío Villanueva, RAE’s director said, “The problem is we’re confusing grammar with machismo.” Some refuse to use the term, as Latinx is difficult to pronounce in the Spanish language.
AdditionalEPI research on the Hispanic-white wage gapincludes analysis of immigrant status and country of origin. Looking at only full-time workers in a regression framework, Marie T. Mora and Alberto Dávila find that Latina workers are paid 67 percent on the white non-Hispanic male dollar . Accounting for immigrant status, the pay penalty improves slightly to 30 percent and is wider among first generation immigrants than second or third or higher generation .
The interethnic marriage in the Arab community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Arab community in Mexico shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words.
Session 4 explored how experiences such as immigration, deportation, and acculturation can affect HIV risk among Latina women. The participants also engaged in role-playing activities that integrated these culturally appropriate themes and were designed to enhance women’s confidence in initiating safer sex conversations, negotiating safer sex, and refusing unsafe sexual encounters. The adapted curriculum was translated into Spanish by a translation services company and was reviewed, modified, back-translated into English, and finally approved by the study team. We then field-tested the adapted curriculum, and Latina community representatives reviewed it before implementation.
According to Google Trends, it was first seen online in 2004, and in scholarly work the “x” in Latinx was initially introduced by a Puerto Rican psychology periodical “to challenge the gender binaries encoded in the Spanish Language”. In the U.S. it was first used in activist and LGBT circles as a way to expand on earlier attempts at gender-inclusive forms of the grammatically masculine Latino, such as Latino/a and Latin@. Latinx offers an alternative to the gender binaries inherent to the formulations Latina/o and Latin@.
Defending usage of the term against critics arguing linguistic imperialism, Brooklyn College professors María R. Scharrón-del Río and Alan A. Aja argued that the Spanish language itself is a form of linguistic imperialism for Latin Americans. While the term appears in Spanish in Puerto Rico and other regions of Latin America, the term Latinx has been criticized for being used largely in the United States while not as common in other Spanish-speaking countries. A 2016 HuffPost article stated, “Many opponents of the term have suggested that using an un-gendered noun like Latinx is disrespectful to the Spanish language and some have even called the term ‘a blatant form of linguistic imperialism.
The level of educational attainment for Latinas has risen in the past few years, yet it still sits at a level significantly lower than that of white women. Latinas are 17 times more likely to die from diabetes than non-Hispanic white women.
Important Puerto Rican institutions have emerged from this long history. ASPIRA was established in New York City in 1961 and is now one of the largest national Latino nonprofit organizations in the United States. Despite newer migration trends, New York City continues to be home by a significant margin to the largest demographic and cultural center for Puerto Ricans in the United States, with Philadelphia having the second-largest community. The portmanteau “Nuyorican” refers to Puerto Ricans and their descendants in the New York City metropolitan area.
Regarding it as an arbitrary, generic term, many Latin American scholars, journalists and organizations have objected to the mass media use of the word “Latino”, pointing out that such ethnonyms are optional and should be used only to describe people involved in the practices, ideologies and identity politics of their supporters. They argue that if “Hispanic” is an imposed official term, then so is “Latino”, since it was the French who coined the expression “Latin America” (Amérique latine) to refer to the Spanish, French, and Portuguese-speaking countries of the Western Hemisphere, during their support of the Second Mexican Empire. The term “Hispanic” has been the source of several debates in the USA.
Identifying attributions about addiction and their cultural and socioeconomic correlates in a community-based sample of Latino women may facilitate the development of culturally informed prevention and treatment interventions. Before developing the AMIGAS adaptation, we conducted 3 focus groups with ethnically and culturally diverse Latina women to explore the factors that increased their HIV risks.
The media’s hypersexualization of Latina women has associated their accents with being sexy, which hypersexualizes an entire language. A language is a method of communication, not a way to fulfill white desires. ;” ethnic minorities can be considered exotic because they are different, reinforcing the idea that being white or having white features is the norm in the United States. Even if an ethnic minority is white-passing, when their nationality is revealed it may heighten their sexual appeal to people that value exoticism.
This difference in gender migration is largely attributed to the difference in Latino and Latina work opportunities http://www.jewish.co.il/the-most-overlooked-solution-for-guatemala-girls.html in the United States. Prior to the 1970s, the majority of the Latino migratory work was agriculturally based.
There are also Mexicans living abroad which speak indigenous languages mostly in the United States but their number is unknown. The term Latin America was first coined by South Americans in France in the mid-19th century and then by the French as Amérique latine, during the time of the French intervention in Mexico in the 1860s. It is a combination of the European prefix “latino-” and the New World, “America”.
Others are wholly or predominantly of European or Middle Eastern ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well. The term Hispanic was first used by the U.S. government in the 1970s after Mexican American and other Hispanic organizations lobbied the federal government to collect data on the population. Subsequently, the U.S Congress passed Public Law in 1976, mandating the collection of information about U.S. residents of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American, South American and other Spanish-speaking country origins. Census Bureau to create a broader category that encompassed all people who identified having roots from these countries.
In more than 15 years of polling by Pew Research Center, half of Americans who trace their roots to Spanish-speaking Latin America and Spain have consistently said they have no preference for either Hispanic or Latino as a term to describe the group. And when one term is chosen over another, the term Hispanic has been preferred to Latino. Importantly, the same surveys show, country of origin labels are preferred to these pan-ethnic terms among the population they are meant to describe. More recently, Latinx has emerged as an alternative to Hispanic and Latino. Online searches for the term among the general U.S. population appeared online in the early 2000s.
The constant erasure of afro-Latinos and those of us who don’t come from Spanish speaking countries in these articles is horrendous. The U.S. States where Puerto Ricans were the largest Hispanic group were New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Hawaii. U.S. states with higher percentages of Puerto Ricans then the national average (1.5%) as of 2010, are Connecticut (7.1%), New York (5.5%), New Jersey (4.9%), Florida (4.5%), Massachusetts (4.1%), Rhode Island (3.3%), Hawaii (3.2%), Pennsylvania (2.9%) and Delaware (2.5%).
Definition Of A Latina
Peer Leaders learn to design and implement a “learning project” that meets a need they see in their community. Brazilian women are thus Latina , whereas Spanish women are Hispanic . As Brazil and Spain are not disaggregated as Hispanic origin options in the Current Population Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, it is not possible to distinguish between Hispanic women and Latinas in the dataset we used for our regression analysis. As such, we use the terms interchangeably except when reviewing the research findings specifically about Latina or Hispanic women.